Sunday, April 26, 2015

The History of Wharf Mine

The program topic for the Spearfish Area Historical Society for April 2015 was "The History of Wharf Mine" presented by Meg Manke, HR Generalist from Wharf Resources (USA) Inc.   Of the about 80 people who attended the meeting at the Spearfish Area Senior Citizens Center on April 7, 
many had worked in mines in the Black Hills.

Meg Manke introduced herself and we were off and running through a description and a presentation of the various corporate owners of the Wharf Mine since start in 1980s to the current owner, Coure Mining.  To-date the mine, located just north of Terry Peak, has secured 2.4 mil oz. of processed gold.  Two hundred people are employed on four shifts, 24/7.  They utilize 14-15 haul trucks at a time.  

Safety is a major focus evidenced by a 'fit for work program' where they work only if they are ready and fit.   Workers also perform exercises at the start of every shift. Wharf Mine also has a helipad that is shared with Terry Peak.

Blasting in the open cut mine is done attempting perfect "fluff" blasts where the rock is blasted upward so that it will drop exactly where it came from.   This allows the engineers to properly evaluate how good their pre-estimates were on the quality of the gold in the rock.

Wharf has set up a Sustainable Prosperity Fund to give back to the local communities through qualified non-profits.  

History of Lead (including the subsidence of Lead)

Wayne Paananen, Historical Footprints, presented the topic "History of Lead (including the subsidence of Lead) to the Spearfish Area Historical Society on March 3, 2015 to over 65 attendees at the Spearfish Senior Citizen's Center.   Wayne Paananen's talk focused on the historical economic development in the city of Lead, SD.

Thursday, April 16, 2015

Wild Tales of Black Hills Pioneers

Donna Sachau presenting "Wild Tales of Black Hills Pioneers"
A substantial crowd of Spearfish Area Historical Society attended Donna Sachau's Feb 3, 2015 presentation on "Wild Tales of Black Hills Pioneers".
Donna covered four stories, two from her own family history and two of the wildest tales of the west.  The first tale was of Mrs. Holloway who journeyed with 37 wagons from the Missouri River toward California in 1857.   On Aug 14 near the Humbolt River they were attacked by Indians and she was shot with an arrow and then scalped.   She also had to witness her own child being killed.   Mrs. Holloway survived and found her own scalp to make a wig.   Sadly, her health quickly failed and then her mind.
Big Nose George
The second tale was of Big Nose George Parrott who was a bull team driver from Indiana and Iowa.   In the fall of 1878, George  joined Jessie and Frank James to rob the train at Four Corners, WY.  George was caught and hung . . . three times.    The first two hangings were botched but he died on the third, hung from a telephone pole.    Stranger yet was the culture of the time:  Dr. John Osborne requested and received Big Nose George's body from which he made a death mask and shoes made of human skin.  Dr. Osborne was later elected Governor of Wyoming and wore the shoes to the Governor's Ball. 
Albert Henderson Daniels was related to Daniel Boone.    Albert Henderson’s son was Albert Aaron Daniels who was born on 9/28/1894 just north of Spearfish, SD on their homestead.  He attended school at the Centennial School through the 8th grade.  He served in WWI and then returned to ranch in Crook County where he met and married Cleo M. Scott in 1931.  They moved to the centennial ranch east of Spearfish in 1939. His wife, Cleo, continued to live on the ranch for 14 more years and then moved to town.  Their daughter, Doris, married Joseph M. Schenk (IV) in 1951 and they ranched together 10 miles west of Spearfish for the next 50 years.  Their children in Lawrence County are Dan (Renee) Schenk, Donna (Randy) Sachau, and Ann (Delmar) Brownell.
Joseph Schenk grew up in Germany in a happy hard-working family but rather poor.  He immigrated to America and in 1858 attended the 5th and most largely attended Lincoln-Douglas debate at Galesburg, IL.   Joseph was impressed that Lincoln as poor as he, should, by ability and character, at so early an age, have acquired such leadership.
Joseph age 25 and his brother John headed westward.  They paid $25 to a Captain Stewart for their keep and joined his emigrant party heading to California on April 20, 1859 and arrived Sept 5.  Along the Mormon trail, half of mankind seemed on the move.  During the day, great lines of white covered wagons, drawn by oxen or horses or mules moved steadily westward.  At night, hundreds of campfires glowed under the stars. 
Once while the caravan was passing through the Rockies, it had a real Indian scare.  Word was brought back that while a preceding party had started through a pass, it was ambushed and a number of its party massacred.   Joseph’s job was to take care of a young Morgan stallion that his boss had paid $1000 for and he could run a mile in 3 minutes.  He would run him ahead of the train and let him feed until the others came up.  One day as Joseph was galloping up over a hill he ran into a party of mounted Indian braves in full war paint who immediately gave chase.  But the little Morgan dashed away from them like the wind. With arrows flying their way, they escaped unharmed. 
In 1860 Joseph Schenk completed his American citizenship and that fall cast his first ballot for Abraham Lincoln for president.  He married at the age of 30, bought a farm near Waterloo, Iowa and raised 9 children.  Their son, Joseph Schenk (II) moved his family to the Spearfish area in 1908 and bought land near Chicken Creek.  Three more generations of Joseph Schenk's (III through V) and their families ranched near Crow Creek and Mirror Lake. 

Tuesday, February 10, 2015

Gold Mining in the Tinton Region

Chris Hills, Jan 6, 2015, presenting to Spearfish Area Historical Society
On Jan 6, 2015, Chris Hills, author of "Gold Pans and Broken Picks", presented the topic "Gold Mining in the Tinton Region" to over 75 people of the Spearfish Area Historical Society. Chris included old photographs to illustrate his talk.

Gold Bug Nelson, Black Hills
Chris reported that the first gold in the Black Hills was found in Iron Creek and second in Potato Creek. Frank Bryant found gold in downtown Deadwood on Blacktail Creek downstream from Central City. Other sites for gold were Beaver Creek and Sand Creek (photo of Ed Sussingham in the creek with iron soled boots). Thomas Mallory started the Gold Star claim adjacent to the original Homestake Claim; Mallory sold out to Hearst who expanded the Homestake. The miners from Bear Gulch had a favorite donkey and used to bring the donkey to Spearfish. Once when the donkey was left in town, the newspaper called out for "Miners of Bear Gulch, please come get your donkey." Later when the donkey died, it was buried with the miners.

Tinton got its name from "Tin" for the tin mining there and 'ton' from Cornish translation for 'town'. The peak population in 1927-28 was 300 during the week. On weekends the temporary people walked to the railroad to Iron Creek to catch the railroad out. The last person in Tinton left in 1961, making it one of the last Black Hills ghost towns.

Saturday, December 20, 2014

Historical Photos of the Black Hills Area

Horse Shoe Curve with Buckhorn Mountains in background - 1891
Larry Miller shared historical photos of the Black Hills area to over 80 people from the Spearfish Area Historical Society on Dec 2, 2014.  The location was the Spearfish Senior Citizens Center.

The photographs were from the John C.H. Grabill collection, starting in 1886 or 1887 for the next five or six years when John Grabill had studios in Sturgis and then Deadwood and worked as the official photographer of Homestake Gold Mine.   John C.H. Grabill left the area and became a famous photographer in Chicago.
Sioux City party on Tally Ho Coach near Hot Springs - 1889

What's left of Big Foot band after Wounded Knee - 1891

The photos were obtained the from the Library of Congress free gallery website and combed through hundreds of photographs, selecting, inspecting details, and organizing them for our viewing and understanding.  

Starting with photos of the early towns of Terraville (now a ghost town), Central City, Deadwood, and Lead City, Larry Miller then moved on to photos of Chinese citizens of Deadwood and then to the area stagecoaches.  

Devil's Tower from the east - 1888
Larry showed photos of Native Americans at the time of the Wounded Knee massacre.   One was of the horse "Comanche" about that time; this horse survived the Battle of the Little Bighorn.   We viewed photos of Native American gatherings such as the Great Grass Dance of 1890 at Pine Ridge.  Larry then moved on to photos of the early gold mines and stamp mills.  

The program ended with many early photos of some of the unique (but off the road) landscape features in the area, such as Devil's Tower, the "old man of the park" near Sundance, Phantom Ridge, and Echo Canyon near Hot Springs.

Friday, December 19, 2014

50 Years Ago: Luci Johnson's Spearfish Visit

Luci Baines Johnson
On Nov 11, 2014, Paul Higbee presented the story of first daughter, Luci Johnson's visit to Spearfish back in 1964.  The audience was the Spearfish Area Historical Society and the venue was the Spearfish Senior Citizen's Center.
Luci was the teenage daughter of Lyndon and Lady Bird Johnson.  She came to Spearfish to be the honorary Grand Marshall of the BHSC Swarm Day parade.  The date was Oct 24, 1964.  It was 10 days before the Lyndon Johnson and Barry Goldwater election and only eleven months after Kennedy was assassinated.  The voting age was still 21.
Luci was a charming, friendly and eager Grand Marshall for the parade.  A big and friendly crowd attended and filled the streets of Spearfish.  There were 12 marching bands for the college half-time show.
Luci Bains Johnson Honorary in Swarm Day Parade in Spearfish - Oct 24, 1964
Riding with Luci Johnson in the Swarm Day parade was Anne McGovern, daughter of George McGovern and secret service agent, Rufus Youngblood.   Rufus was in the Johnson's car in Dallas and was the first to recognize the first shot.   By the 3rd shot, he was on the floor of the car covering Lyndon and Lady Bird.
Ten days after Luci's visit, Lyndon Johnson and Hubert Humphrey lost the election in Spearfish, won in South Dakota and won the national election.

Saturday, November 8, 2014

Home Extension Clubs of Lawrence County

Ida Marie Snorteland and five friends presented the history of the Home Extension Club to over 85 people in the Spearfish Area Historical Society on Oct 7, 2014 at the Spearfish Senior Citizens Center. 
The Home Extension Clubs were a large part of women's lives in Lawrence County beginning in 1914 when the US Government passed the Smith-Lever Act connected through the land grant universities to give each state $10,000 to start up Home Extension Clubs.   Back in the day, women would come by foot, wagon or horseback to join the clubs.   They always wore hats.
The clubs were instructional and social.   The instructional part was done by train-the-trainer methods (before that term was used).  Workshops included such things as making hats, using spices, Chinese cooking, and deboning a turkey.  Events included a wide variety; some examples were one act play contests, fundraising at $2 a plate for the Children's Hospital in Hot Springs, and readings.  The social part extended to families as annual family picnics and holiday programs were highly attended.
Many Home Extension Clubs were formed in Lawrence County in it peak years in the 30's and 40's.   Over the years, the Lawrence County Extension Clubs sponsored the sound system in the Pavilion, the Entrance to Spearfish Park and one of the picnic shelters in the park.
Ruby Green Smith from Ithaca, NY, is best known as the author of the Home Bureau Creed, 500,000 copies of which were published and distributed nationwide. The creed reads as follows:
To maintain the highest ideals of home life; to count children the most important of crops; to so mother them that their bodies may be sound, their minds clear, their spirits happy, and their characters generous:
To place service above comfort; to let loyalty to high purpose silence discordant notes; to let neighborliness supplant hatreds; to be discouraged never:                       To lose self in generous enthusiasms; to extend to the less fortunate a helping hand; to believe one's community may become the best of communities; and to cooperate with others for the common ends of a more abundant home and community life.

Tuesday, September 23, 2014

The Great Western Cattle Trail

Peggy Ables, Betty Olson and Paul Higbee kicked off the season for the Spearfish Area Historical Society on Sept 2, 2014 at the High Plains Western Heritage Center.   Over 80 people were in attendance.
Did you know that the cowboys who ran cattle from Texas to South Dakota were, for the most part, 13 and 14 year old boys?   (answer:  they were)   Did you know why they went so far north as South Dakota?   (answer:  because after the Civil War, the livestock needed to be grazed and the short-growing season in SD locks in nutrients in the grasses for cattle).   Did you know that Great Western Cattle Trail markers were dedicated this July 2014 at the Heritage Center in Spearfish and at the Tri-State Museum in Belle Fourche?   (answer:  Yup! They were.)

Western South Dakota can claim a large part of the history of the Great Western Cattle Trails that ran from Texas and New Mexico through Oklahoma, Kansas, Colorado, and Nebraska and ended in Wyoming, Montana and South Dakota.  Peggy Ables told stories of this year's July event hosting the Great Western Cattle Trail Association members.  Betty Olson told of her legislature that was unanimously approved for an un-paid holiday in South Dakota on the 4th Sat in July to celebrate the Day of the American Cowboy.   Paul Higbee described how many, many cowboys came to the area on a cattle drive and then decided to stay and live in Lawrence, Butte and Meade counties.  Some of them included Tom Gay, Zee Russell, Leo Russell, Billy Sutton, and Slim McNutton.
See three original saddles from the cattle trail and learn more at the High Plains Western Heritage Center.